The capital city of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar is located on the bank of the Tuul River. It lies in the north central portion of Mongolia at the foothills of Bogd Khaan Mountain at an altitude of 1350 meters above sea level, covering an area of 4700 sq.km. The city is administratively divided into 9 districts and 121 khoroos.
As of April 2007, the city's population has reached one million: of these, there are 472670 women and 442861 men. There are 195 persons per sq km. The young people under age of 35 constitute 67 per cent of population, and of these, children under age of 16 accounts for 30 per cent.
The spring lasts till mid-May, and the average temperature is plus 50C. Pleasant warm and dry windy days take turn in spring. A snowstorm may spring up quite suddenly. However, the average summer temperature is plus150C, and the summer is warm and rainy, sometimes a hailstorm may occur unexpectedly. Sunny autumn days last for a long time, and the average temperature is plus 70C. Gradually, the leaves of trees turn yellow, it gets cold and begins snowing. Usually, the winter is rather cold in Ulaanbaatar. The average temperature is minus 190C. There are cloudless sunny days in winter, although it is cold. The city preserves the national traditional look side by side with the development of modern buildings, road network, economy and tourism.
The Capital city of Mongolia represents the symbol of struggle of Mongolians for freedom and independence, and it provides the history of political, economic and religious center of an independent country. The foundation of the capital city was recorded in history “Erdenesyin Erkh” in 1841. It was closely linked to the country's political situation in the 17th century. According to researchers' study, the city moved from one place to another twenty eight times between 1640 and 1855. The formation and development of the city can be divided into the following stages.
Mobile Urga /1639-1778/
In 1639 Zanabazar was proclaimed as the religious leader of Mongolia at a place called Tsagaan nuur (Uverkhangai aimag), and a palace, known in the West as Urga was built for him. This was the beginnings to the present Capital city, Ulaanbaatar. Urga was extended between 1640 and 1778. Following the extention, it was renamed Ikhe Khuree. Ikh Khuree /1778-1910/The special feature of this stage was Ikh Khuree's settlement. In 1778 Ikh Khuree moved to the Selbe river valley and settled on the site of present Ulaanbaatar. In building monasteries Mongolians capably used and developed the national ger-style construction structure alongside with the Chinese andTibetan architectural tradition. In the 19th century Ikh Khuree was not only a religious center, it grew to be a full town serving as an important political, administrative and cultural center, and a big junction of trade. At this time, its population deemed to be around 15-20 thousand. Ikh Khuree covered an area of Gandan, Zuun Khuree, Western Pedlars (name of a district in Urga), Maimaa khot, Konsul and Dambadarjaa. By the end of 19th century Ikh Khuree began to be a main junction of religion, politics, trade, national and social conflicts and fights.
Nyislel Khuree /1911-1921/
This was the name of the capital city of re-established Mongolia. The city had to play an extraordinary role in the country's life.
Ulaanbaatar city /from 1921 to present/
In 1924 the capital city of Mongolia was renamed Ulaanbaatar. The first 20-year general plan for developing the city was elaborated in 1954, and its implementation followed. The first multi-party democratic election took place in Mongolia in summer of 1990. The result was the first permanent multi-party Parliament. The new Constitution of Mongolia (4th) adopted in 1992 states: “Ulaanbaatar is the Capital city of Mongolia”. The Capital city has its own flag and emblem.